It was this technology that was utilized in the No. Typically the guns were grouped together in anti-tank battalions each with three batteries made up of four troops which operated four guns each. COMPARE. MODERN ARMIES. So the 6pdr was gun the troops always had to hand locally to defend themselves, with the 17pdr being deployed into areas that divisional HQ felt needed stiffening. Also in WW2, the German 88mm (an A. Also known by the 17/25 pounder designation, a stop-gap measure named Pheasant mated the 17 pounder gun with a modified 25 pounder carriage. [2] However, neither of these was particularly effective as an anti-tank weapon. [15] The Australian Army briefly used PIATs at the start of the Korean War alongside 2.36-inch (60 mm) bazookas, but quickly replaced both weapons with 3.5-inch (89 mm) M20 "Super Bazookas". The bomb can penetrate the armour of the latest known types of enemy A.F.Vs. In that survey the PIAT was ranked the number one most “outstandingly effective” weapon, followed by the Bren gun in second place. Used with the APDS shot, it was capable of defeating all but the thickest armour on German tanks. The 6pdr AT Gun was introduced in 1942, joining the lighter 2pdr, the new gun was more capable of dealing with the increasing thickness of Axis armour. [15], It entered service in mid-1943, and was first used in action by Canadian troops during the Allied invasion of Sicily. Fully developed 17-pounders started production in 1943 and were first used during the Italian Campaign. It was intended to fire the US 75 mm projectiles (AP shot and HE) at a higher velocity, avoiding a downgrade in armour penetration versus the 6-pounder, which the dual purpose 75mm was replacing. This consisted of a recessed metal cone placed into an explosive warhead; when the warhead hit its target, the explosive detonated and turned the cone into an extremely high-speed spike. 4.7cm Bohler M32. With the Firefly the British and Canadians had a weapon to compare with the powerful German anti-tank guns. The 17-pounder anti-tank guns also saw action in Korea against tanks and in general support use against bunker positions. After Korea, the gun was largely replaced in the tank role by the Ordnance QF 20 pounder, and in the anti-tank role by the BAT, MOBAT and 120 mm L6 WOMBAT series of recoilless rifles. COUNTRIES. Various shots of the crews operating the guns. Economical as it may be fired many times with new propellant cartridges. The 17-pounder was also successfully trialled on the Australian-designed Sentinel tank, though no Sentinels equipped with this gun entered service with the Australian Army. A separate weapon, this fired 17-pounder projectiles in a more tank-compatible form, and ultimately replaced the need for 17-pounder tanks late in the war. Trajectory slightly different to service bomb. It notes that the bomb has "Excellent penetration. These were the 1 st Airlanding Ant-Tank Battery, RA and the 2 nd (Oban) Airlanding Anti-Tank Battery, RA. [8], Due to these limitations, a new infantry anti-tank weapon was required, and this ultimately came in the form of the Projector, Infantry, Anti-Tank, commonly abbreviated to PIAT. [3] Production of the Challenger was cancelled, and more Shermans were converted until about 50% of Shermans in British service were Fireflies. Anti-Tank Vehicles are arranged in a separate listing found here. Unfortunately, it was available only in relatively small numbers, and the Americans opted not to use it, preferring to develop their own 76.2 mm gun. This new weapon, the 3-inch 17-pdr, became one of the best anti-tank guns of the war, able to penetrate the thickest armour at normal battle ranges. At the front of the launcher was a small trough in which the bomb was placed, and the movable spigot ran along the axis of the launcher and into the trough. Getting the bomb to detonate reliably against angled targets was troublesome and was addressed with revised fusing. To account for this difference, tank squadrons were teamed with Challenger and Sherman Firefly tanks armed with the 17-pounder. It also notes that it may be used "as a house-breaker". In 1942 the Japanese introduced an improved anti-tank gun in the shape of type 1 47mm, but there were never enough of them and many units still had the 37mm. [1], There was disagreement over the name to be given to the new weapon. [13] Blacker then developed a shaped charge bomb with a propellant charge in its tail, which fitted into a shoulder-fired launcher that consisted of a metal casing containing a large spring and a spigot; the bomb was placed into a trough at the front of the casing, and when the trigger was pulled the spigot rammed into the tail of the bomb and fired it out of the casing and up to approximately 140 metres (150 yd) away. The breech of the gun was rotated 90 degrees to fit inside of the height of the turret, i.e. [41], PIATs were also used by French and Việt Minh forces during the First Indochina War. The new 50-calibre long gun, known as the Vickers HV 75 mm, fired a 75mm projectile attached to a necked down 3-inch (76.2 mm) 20 cwt AA gun cartridge through a modified breech. [4] US tanks began to use the 76 mm gun M1 instead. 3. [18] Churchill supported Jefferis claims, but he did not get his way. But such was its size that it could not be fitted into any existing British tank. The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank (PIAT) Mk I was a British man-portable anti-tank weapon developed during the Second World War. MODERN ARMIES. The larger 3" cartridge provided a greater propellant charge compared with normal 75mm shells. Despite the difficulties in cocking and firing the weapon, it did have several advantages. It was very heavy and bulky, which meant that it was often unpopular with infantry required to carry it. That’s 16 guns per battery and 48 guns per battalion. The PIAT was based on the spigot mortar system, and projected (launched) a 2.5 pound (1.1 kg) shaped charge bomb using a cartridge in the tail of the projectile. HOME. PIATs were supplied to or obtained by other nations and forces, including the Soviet Union (through Lend Lease), the French resistance, the Polish Underground, and the Israeli Haganah (which used PIATs during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War). The PIAT was a little lighter (15kg vs 16kg) and smaller (0.99m long vs 1.57m) than its predecessor, the Boys anti-tank rifle, although it was heavier than the contemporary Bazooka (18 lbs/8.2 kg). Typically a battalion would be assigned to support a division. The British fielded only one airborne gun in the anti-tank role: the Vickers Class S. This was designed around the naval 40 x 158R AA case, with special armour-piercing loadings. The most development was in the area of the anti-tank gun in order to gun to counter the heavier and more powerful German tanks, such as the Panther and the Tiger. [7] Padding for the user's shoulder was fitted to the other end of the launcher, and rudimentary aperture sights were fitted on top for aiming; the bombs launched by the PIAT possessed hollow tubular tails, into which a small propellant cartridge was inserted, and shaped charge warheads. The Israelis used a number of 17 pounders that they captured from the Arabs in the war of independence[16], 17-pounder in Batey ha-Osef museum, Israel, 77 mm HV Mk2 on an early prototype of the South African Rooikat armoured car, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, Being a long gun, in order to give a satisfactory balance, more of the gun was mounted inside the turret, Inside the Chieftain's Hatch: Sherman VC "Firefly" part 2, Learn how and when to remove this template message, South African National Museum of Military History, Armour Piercing, Capped, Ballistic Capped, British standard ordnance weights and measurements, "Il y a 53 ans, la guerre de Bizerte : Le témoignage du général Elkateb", "Sherman M4 and M4A3 17 pounder in US service New Information", "75mm Gun M2, M3, & M6 Specification Booklet", Imperial War Museum Film "A Date with a Tank", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ordnance_QF_17-pounder&oldid=991995563, World War II artillery of the United Kingdom, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, Articles needing additional references from April 2008, All articles needing additional references, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Due to the dominating presence of tanks in World War 2, it became imperative for all sides to field some sort of mobile counter in the Anti-Tank Gun. Flag images indicative of country of origin and not necessarily primary operator. Similarly, the smaller 3" based ammunition was easier to store and handle in the tank's cramped interior. The gun was a modified design that was produced specifically for the Firefly. Note, however, that troops were trained to cock the PIAT before expected use, and "in action the projector will always be carried cocked" (but unloaded). During WW2 Canada used artillery including anti-tank guns of British design and many guns were built in Canada. The PIAT had several advantages over other infantry anti-tank weapons of the period; it had greatly increased penetration power over the previous anti-tank rifles, it had no back-blast which might reveal the position of the user or accidentally injure friendly soldiers around the user, and simple construction. Vickers slightly modified the case by necking it down from 76.2mm to 75mm in order to take the US Army's M61 APCBC and M48 HE shells used in the M2 and M3 tank guns which armed their M3 (Lee and Grant in British service) and M4 (Sherman) tanks. [16] Production of the PIAT began at the end of August 1942. British Anti-Tank Guns By Jason Rahman February 2019. Attached to the British 1 st Airborne Division were two batteries of anti-tank artillery. There are a total of [ 42 ] Towed Anti-Tank Guns entries in the Military Factory. [30] And in occupied France, the French resistance used the PIAT in the absence of mortars or artillery. It was also used as the main armament for a number of armoured fighting vehicles. [note 2] Additionally, a new recoil mechanism, based on that of the 6-pounder was developed to further shorten the recoil, while also shortening the gun cradle. They became one of the most effective weapons on the battlefield, on both carriages and tanks. After firing on soft ground, the 17-pounder frequently had to be pulled out of the ground due to the gun recoil burying the trail spades. The first versions on modified field gun carriages were rushed out to Tunisia in May 1943 to combat the new German Tiger tank. When the trigger was pulled, the spring pushed the spigot rod (which has a fixed firing pin on the end) forwards into the bomb, which aligned the bomb, ignited the propellant cartridge in the bomb and launched it along the rod and into the air. As such, it was much less powerful than the Army's 2 pdr anti-tank gun, but the attack speed of the aircraft helped to provide a penetration quoted as 50-55 mm (range and striking angle not specified). Same size and weight as a live round, no warhead, but has a live propellant cartridge. Supplied with the propellant cartridge fitted and the fuse separate. 68. While the A29 was eventually cancelled without a successful design being produced, an amended specification, A30, reached production in 1943. [28], An analysis by British staff officers of the initial period of the Normandy campaign found that 7% of all German tanks destroyed by British forces were knocked out by PIATs, compared to 6% by rockets fired by aircraft. [10] Blacker eventually designed a lightweight mortar that he named the 'Arbalest' and submitted it to the War Office,[11] but it was turned down in favour of a Spanish design. The APDS was also considered to cause less damage to an enemy tank if it did penetrate the armour. [14], At the time that he developed the Baby Bombard and sent it off the War Office, Blacker was working for a government department known as MD1, which was given the task of developing and delivering weapons for use by guerrilla and resistance groups in Occupied Europe. WW2 British Guns (1939-1945) Infantry / Small Arms. Mountain guns were also used because of their ability to be broken down and carried by pack animals. Towed Anti-Aircraft Cannon. [8], The PIATs' ammunition used the shaped charge principle, which, if the often unreliable early round design delivered it correctly to the target, allowed the warhead to penetrate almost all enemy armour types at close range. 2. The No. Initially used solely by the Royal Artillery’s anti-tank regiments comprising of four batteries, each with 12 guns. 68 Anti-Tank Rifle Grenade - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/No._68_AT_Grenade No. BY DECADE. [31], Six Victoria Crosses were awarded to members of the British and other Commonwealth armed forces for actions using the PIAT:[32], The PIAT remained in service until the early 1950s, when it was replaced initially by the ENERGA anti-tank rifle grenade and then the American M20 "Super Bazooka". In the anti-tank role, it was replaced after the war by the 120 mm BAT recoilless rifle. [40], The Haganah and the emerging Israel Defence Force (IDF) used PIATs against Arab armour during the 1947–1949 Palestine war. When the Royal Artillery anti-tank units were disbanded in 1951, it was transferred to Infantry battalions in the BAOR (six per battalion), towed by the Oxford Tracked Carrier. However, production of the tank took time and few could be completed before the allied invasion of Normandy. BY CONFLICT. In 1936 B.S.A signed an agreement that allowed them to manufacture the Czech ZB53 machine gun and in 1938 the War Office placed their first order with the first guns being completed in 1939. INFANTRY. 2cm FlaK 30. INFANTRY. The Ordnance Quick-Firing 17-pounder (or just 17-pdr) was a 76.2 mm (3 inch) gun developed by the United Kingdom during World War II. scored more enemy tank "Kills" than our Anti-Tank Gunners. In Australian Army service, the PIAT was also known as PITA (Projector Infantry Tank Attack). The recoil caused by the detonation of the propellant blew the spigot rod backwards onto the spring; this reduced the shock of recoil and automatically cocked the weapon for subsequent shots, eliminating the need to manually re-cock.[7][21]. British Ordnance QF. So great was the rush that they were sent before proper carriages had been developed, and the guns had to be mounted in the carriages of 25-pounder gun-howitzers. The British also converted some of their US-produced M10 tank destroyers, replacing the 3-inch (76 mm) gun with the 17-pounder; the resulting vehicles were called 17pdr SP Achilles or just 17-pdr M10C. [15] The 1944 war establishment for a British platoon, which contained 36 men, had a single PIAT attached to the platoon headquarters, alongside a 2-inch (51 mm) mortar detachment. There are a total of [ 35 ] WW2 Anti-Tank Guns (1939-1945) entries in the … Jefferis then had a small number of prototype armour-piercing HEAT rounds made, and took the weapon to be tested at the Small Arms School at Bisley. Tactical training emphasized that it was best utilized with surprise and concealment on the side of the PIAT team, and where possible enemy armoured vehicles should be engaged from the flank or rear. [23] British Army and Royal Marines commandos were also issued with PIATs and used them in action.[26]. [42], Library and Archives Canada, Record Group 24, Battle Experience Questionnaires, Vol. Firing the Most Powerful Anti-Tank Gun of WWII - YouTube Used by the Germans in WWII, the Pak 40 makes other anti-tank guns look like toys. Man-portable anti-tank systems are showcased here. These served with Royal Artillery as self-propelled guns. The British started work on developing a gun that was small enough to fit on their tank designs—particularly the Cromwell cruiser tank then at the design stage. Gun !) The Cruiser Mark VI Crusader was the main British mid war cruiser tank. of WW1 & WW2 (in those days, these guns were not used by Infantry, but most certainly, used in the Anti-Tank role) In WW2, the 25 Pdr. Date Released: 2009: Contents: 32 figures: Poses: 8 poses: Material: Plastic (Fairly Soft) Colours : Green: Average Height: 23 mm (= 1.66 m) Review. A prototype production line was set up in spring 1942, and with the appearance of Tiger I tanks in early 1943 in the North African Campaign, the first 100 prototype 17-pounder anti-tank guns were quickly sent to help counter this new threat. See also the bazooka, which had similar early problems. The Ordnance Quick-Firing 17-pounder (or just 17-pdr)[note 1] was a 76.2 mm (3 inch) gun developed by the United Kingdom during World War II. A press report in 1944 gave credit for both the PIAT and the Blacker Bombard to Jefferis. [9] By effectively putting the barrel on the inside of the weapon, the barrel diameter was no longer a limitation on the warhead size. The standard REI ATG (as well as for their light SPATs (Semovente da 47/32) and ‘medium’ tanks (Carri M13/40, M14/41, and M15/42)) was the Bohler 47mm (early models were L/32 (32 calibre lengths), later ones L/40)). It can be fired once from a standard PIAT, it is not re-usable. From 1943, one PIAT team was allocated to each infantry platoon in a jungle division[27] – the tropical light infantry formation that was the standard front-line Australian division in the South West Pacific theatre. BY TYPE. The United States Army did not use the 17-pounder, though the gun was offered to US forces with a number of Sherman tanks modified for testing. However, they also found that once German tanks had been fitted with armoured skirts that detonated shaped charge ammunition before it could penetrate the tank's armour, the weapon became much less effective. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). [3] The PIAT was often also used in combat to knock out enemy positions located in houses and bunkers. As a result, it had to be towed by a gun tractor, such as the Morris Quad, M3 Half-track or the Crusader, as it could not effectively be moved by its gun crew alone, especially on poor ground. or "HE/AT" and does not mention shaped charge as such. The British were no exception. Normally APC or APCBC was fired. AT shaped charge warhead design. However, unlike the 2pdr and 6pdr – already covered by the same author in earlier “In Canadian Service” books – the 17pdr was not built in Canada although large quantities of ammunition for them came from Canadian factories. [10], The PIAT was 39 inches (0.99 m) long and weighed 32 pounds (15 kg), with an effective direct fire range of approximately 115 yards (105 m) and a maximum indirect fire range of 350 yards (320 m). WW2 Anti-Tank Guns (1939-1945) Armor / Land Systems. Rounds were supplied in three-round ammunition cases with the propellant cartridge fitted and the fuses separate. The Ordnance Quick-Firing 6-pounder 7 cwt, or just 6-pounder, was a British 57 mm gun, serving during the Second World War as a primary anti-tank gun of both the British and United States Army (as the 57 mm Gun M1). But he did not abandon the design, and eventually come up with the Blacker Bombard, a swivelling spigot-style system that could launch a 20-pound (9 kg) bomb approximately 100 yards (90 m); although the bombs it fired could not actually penetrate armour, they could still severely damage tanks, and in 1940 a large number of Blacker Bombards were issued to the Home Guard as anti-tank weapons. HOME. By 1944 an infantry division would be equipped with as many as 78 6pdrs and more than 30 heavier 17pdrs while an armoured divisions was equipped with 30 6pdrs. Self-propelled anti-tank guns Self-propelled anti-tank guns are anti-tank guns mounted on … This has the benefit of greater ease of use on tanks, many of which would not have sufficient turret space to accommodate the breech length and recoil distance of the 17-pounder. does not absorb moisture. BY TYPE . Machine Guns. [15] A Warrant Officer took the Shoulder Gun down to a firing range, aimed it at an armoured target, and pulled the trigger; the Shoulder Gun pierced a hole in the target, but unfortunately also wounded the Warrant Officer when a piece of metal from the exploding round flew back and hit him. They first saw action in February 1943. COUNTRIES. Entries are … However, few tanks were capable of carrying such a large gun due to the size limitations of their turret rings. [8], As part of the Lend Lease agreement, between October 1941 and March 1946 the Soviet Union was supplied with 1,000 PIATs and 100,000 rounds of ammunition. [29] The PIAT was also utilized by resistance groups in Occupied Europe. It was used to 'up-gun' some foreign-built vehicles in British service, notably to produce the Sherman Fireflyvariant of the US M4 Sherman tank, giving British tank units the ability to hold their own … BY DECADE. [1] Shortly after the trial of the Baby Bombard, Blacker was posted to other duties, and left the anti-tank weapon in the hands of a colleague in the department, Major Millis Jefferis. This phenomenon is known as the 'Munroe effect'. Instead of a barrel, there was a steel rod known as a 'spigot' fixed to a baseplate, and the bomb itself had a propellant charge inside its tail. It was used as an anti-tank gun on its own carriage, as well as equipping a number of British tanks. Blacker called the weapon the 'Baby Bombard', and presented it to the War Office in 1941. There are a total of [ 26 ] WW2 Anti-Tank Weapons (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. 1937. [13] However, when the weapon was tested it proved to have a host of problems; a War Office report of June 1941 stated that the casing was flimsy and the spigot itself did not always fire when the trigger was pulled, and none of the bombs provided exploded upon contact with the target. 2. [21] Users of a small stature often found the cocking sequence challenging, as they did not have the sufficient height required to pull the body up far enough to cock the weapon; it was also difficult to do when lying in a prone position, as was often the case when using the weapon in action.[22]. The A30 specification reduced weight and enabled the use of Cromwell tank components as a design expedient. [7], Conventional spigot mortar designs have a fixed spigot rod, for example the Blacker Bombard. However, the type also had some disadvantages: powerful recoil, a difficulty in cocking the weapon, and early problems with ammunition reliability. Instructions were to examine the barrel for wear after every 40 EFC.[15]. WW2 British Machine Guns. During these trials, a skilled user was unable to hit a target more than 60% of the time at 100 yards (90 m), and faulty fuses meant that only 75% of the bombs fired detonated on-target. scored more tank "Kills" than their Anti-Tank Gunners. WW2 Anti-Tank Weapons (1939-1945) Infantry / Small Arms. The 17-pounder outperformed all other Allied armour-piercing guns, and was quickly adapted for use on various tank chassis. Muzzle blast was also significant, described by crews of the anti-tank gun variant as resembling a hard slap on the chest. Britain Anti-Tank Weapons – Anti-Tank Grenades: Grenade Rifle No. BY CONFLICT. It possessed an effective range of approximately 115 yards (105 m)[3] in a direct fire anti-tank role, and 350 yards (320 m)[3] in an indirect fire role. Before the QF 6-pounder had entered service, the British predicted that it would soon be inadequate given the increasing armour of German tanks. Britain started the war with the 2pdr anti-tank gun and this modern gun was the standard weapon of anti-tank regiments. During the Warsaw Uprising, it was one of many weapons that Polish Underground resistance fighters used against German forces. [citation needed] After penetration the core usually disintegrated.[14]. MANUFACTURERS. Other British Tank Armaments. [15] Jefferis himself then took the place of the Warrant Officer and fired off several more rounds, all of which pierced the armoured target but without wounding him. Mark IV, July 1944, Revised construction to reduce rearward fragmentation and "back blast" of warhead explosion. The speed of the spike, and the immense pressure it caused on impact allowed it to create a small hole in armour plating and send a large pressure wave and large amounts of fragments into the interior of the target. While offering greater penetration, the smaller (sub-calibre) tungsten core of APDS was considered to provide less accurate fire than APCBC ammunition at ranges beyond 500 yards. [1], Jefferis took the prototype Baby Bombard apart on the floor of his office in MD1 and rebuilt it, and then combined it with a shaped charge mortar bomb to create what he called the 'Jefferis Shoulder Gun'. The 17-pounder the following ammunition types: APCBC ammunition was the standard ammunition for the gun, while APDS shot was used for about 6% of the average load of a 17-pounder-equipped British tank. Location Unknown / Unclear.Several shots of the officers inspecting British 17 pounders field guns. As a tank gun, it was succeeded by the 84 mm 20 pounder. 1935. The 2 pdr was then given to the infantry and kept at battalion level until it was replaced entirely by the 6 pdr. British AT Guns. COUNTRIES. Entries are listed below in alphanumeric order (1-to-Z). A variant of the 17-pounder, the 77mm HV, was used on the Comet tank. There are a total of [ 70 ] WW2 British Guns (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. It was later replaced by the 120 mm BAT recoilless rifle anti-tank weapon. The 17-pounder produced a very large muzzle flash due to the large amount of propellant in its cartridges. The PIAT was first used during the Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943, and remained in use with British and other Commonwealth forces until the early 1950s. The Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank (PIAT) Mk I was a British man-portable anti-tank weapon developed during the Second World War. Same shape as a live round, for dry loading practice. Impressed with the weapon, the Ordnance Board of the Small Arms School had the faults with the ammunition corrected, renamed the Shoulder Gun as the Projector, Infantry, Anti Tank, and ordered that it be issued to infantry units as a hand-held anti-tank weapon. All figures are supplied unpainted ( Numbers of ww2 british anti tank guns pose in brackets ) Stats of in... Used as the M3 Lee and M4 Sherman put them into service before its own carriage was... Jefferis claims, but he did not get his way up of four batteries, each with 12.... Supported Jefferis claims, but museum examples seem to be devised armament for a 17-pounder armed cruiser.! Had already paid Blacker £50,000 for his part Blacker received £25,000 ( equivalent to £1,087,000 in 2020.! Such as the main armament for British tanks was the main armament for a 17-pounder armed cruiser tank battalion! Useless against allied medium tanks and due to the large amount of propellant in its cartridges ( equivalent £1,087,000! 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